1/ Just one word about this "paper" trying to prove Bitcoin is more efficient (1.2x to 5x) than the Banking system ... per transaction.
It's just a gigantic pile of crap.
3/ Bitcoin settles around 300k transactions per day (which is a pathetic throughput btw, less than a 33 kbps modem from the 1990's).
4/ The SWIFT banking system (inter banking transactions) processes more that 42 millions transactions per day.
SWIFT is like the settlement / L1 of the banking system and a lower bound of total nb of transactions.
10/ By the way, don't be fooled, this article is not a scientific article: It is self-published and has not been peer-reviewed. Such a pile of nonsense could never have passed the peer review stage. Unfortunately, this impresses those who do not understand academic research.
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