很多人可能不知道,《1984》的结局其实是开放的。

完整地看完了《1984》的人,很少有不为书中描绘的那个暗无天日、没有希望的极权社会感到压抑、沮丧乃至抑郁的。让人沮丧的不仅仅是“大洋国”本身的黑暗,更是面对这样一种极权体制的无力感,仿佛以后的人类世世代代都要接受它的奴役一样。

如果单看正文,不看附录的话,那么读者会有这样的感受是很正常的。即便是看了中文版附录,读者也不会感觉有什么异常。可是当你查看英文原著的附录时,你就会发现这里实际上埋了一条暗线。

我们来将中英两板的附录做一下对比。

中文版附录:

新话的原则

「新话是大洋国的正式语言,其设计是为了满足英社——即英格兰社会主义——的意识形态上的需要。到了一九八四年还没有一个人能用新话作为唯一交流手段,不论是口头上的,还是书面的。《泰晤士报》上的社论是用新话写的,但是这是一种特殊的技巧,只有专家才能做到。估计到了二〇五〇年新话终将取代老话(即我们所称的标准英语)。在此之前,它逐步地扩大地盘,所有党员在日常谈话中越来越多地使用新话的词汇和语法结构。一九八四年使用的那一种,见诸第九版和第十版的新话词典,是临时性的,其中有不少多余的词和过时的结构,以后就要废除的。这里所涉只是第十一版词典中应用的最后修订稿。

新话的目的不仅是为英社拥护者提供一种表达世界观和思想习惯的合适的手段,而且也是为了使得所有其他思想方式不可能再存在。这样在大家采用了新话,忘掉了老话以后,异端的思想,也就是违背英社原则的思想,就根本无法思想,只要思想是依靠字句来进行的。
……
……
的确,过去的许多文学都已用这个办法加以改写。出于名声的考虑,有必要保持对某些历史人物的记忆,同时使他们的成就与英社哲学一致。因此像莎士比亚、弥尔顿、斯威夫特、拜伦、狄更斯这样的作家的作品都在翻译中;这项工作完成后,他们的原作以及所有残存的过去的文学作品都将统统销毁。这项翻译工作既费时又费力,在二十一世纪的头一二十年恐怕不会完成。还有大量的实用文献——不可缺少的技术手册之类——也需这样处理。主要是为了有时间进行这项翻译工作,新话的最后采用日期才定在二〇五〇年这么迟的一个年份。亅

英文版附录:

The Principles of Newspeak

「Newspeak was the official language of Oceania and had been devised to meet the ideological needs of Ingsoc, or English Socialism. In the year 1984 there was not as yet anyone who used Newspeak as his sole means of communication, either in speech or writing. The leading articles in ‘The Times’ were written in it, but this was a TOUR DE FORCE which could only be carried out by a specialist. It was expected that Newspeak would have finally superseded Oldspeak (or Standard English, as we should call it) by about the year 2050. Meanwhile it gained ground steadily, all Party members tending to use Newspeak words and grammatical constructions more and more in their everyday speech. The version in use in 1984, and embodied in the Ninth and Tenth Editions of the Newspeak Dictionary, was a provisional one, and contained many superfluous words and archaic formations which were due to be suppressed later. It is with the final, perfected version, as embodied in the Eleventh Edition of the Dictionary, that we are concerned here.

The purpose of Newspeak was not only to provide a medium of expression for the world-view and mental habits proper to the devotees of Ingsoc, but to make all other modes of thought impossible. It was intended that when Newspeak had been adopted once and for all and Oldspeak forgotten, a heretical thought—that is, a thought diverging from the principles of Ingsoc—should be literally unthinkable, at least so far as thought is dependent on words.
……
……
A good deal of the literature of the past was, indeed, already being transformed in this way. Considerations of prestige made it desirable to preserve the memory of certain historical figures, while at the same time bringing their achievements into line with the philosophy of Ingsoc. Various writers, such as Shakespeare, Milton, Swift, Byron, Dickens, and some others were therefore in process of translation: when the task had been completed, their original writings, with all else that survived of the literature of the past, would be destroyed. These translations were a slow and difficult business, and it was not expected that they would be finished before the first or second decade of the twenty-first century. There were also large quantities of merely utilitarian literature—indispensable technical manuals, and the like—that had to be treated in the same way. It was chiefly in order to allow time for the preliminary work of translation that the final adoption of Newspeak had been fixed for so late a date as 2050.」

看出区别来了吗?

区别就是中文版附录是用现在时写成的,英文版的附录则是用过去时写成的。时态不一样,意思就天差地别。中文版的附录实在描述一个正在推行的制度,英文版的附录则是在描述一个曾被推行的制度。我查看了上海译文出版社、译林出版社、北京理工大学出版社三家的译文,发现它们都没有把译文中过去时时态表现出来,它们都遗漏了这处重要的信息。

知道了原著的附录采用的是用过去式的视角,我们就能够明白附录中的“新话”和“大洋国”其实是后人记录或研究的对象。这里暗示的是“大洋国”可能最后还是被推翻了,人们也许把曾经在大洋国发生的这些事情总结成了历史教训,用以警示后人。当然,这是一种猜测,因为奥威尔透露的信息实在太少,没有人知道附录的作者是谁,没有人知道两者之间隔了多少年,也没有人知道这么多年具体发生了什么。但是从《1984》前面的章节中,我们其实能够发现一些值得注意的细节。例如《1984》中反复地提到过一句话:“如果有希望的话,希望一定在无产者身上”。这是温斯顿在日记本里记录的内容,在文中出现过三次。具体的解释是这样的

“因为只有在那里,在这些不受重视的蜂拥成堆的群众中间,在大洋国这百分之八十五的人口中间,摧毁党的力量才能发动起来。党是不可能从内部来推翻的。它的敌人,如果说有敌人的话,是没有办法纠集在一起,或者甚至互相认出来的。即使传说中的兄弟团是存在的——很可能是存在的——也无法想象,它的团员能够超过三三两两的人数聚在一起。造反不过是眼光中的一个神色,声音中的一个变化;最多,偶尔一声细语而已。但是无产者则不然,只要能够有办法使他们意识到自己的力量,就不需要进行暗中活动了。他们只需要起来挣扎一下,就像一匹马颤动一下身子把苍蝇赶跑。他们只要愿意,第二天早上就可以把党打得粉碎。可以肯定地说,他们迟早会想到要这么做的。”

此外,在奥威尔的其他文章中,也能看到类似的观点,例如在《动物农场》乌克兰文版序中,奥威尔就回忆到他曾经看到过一个小男孩,大概十岁,赶着一匹拉车的大马在一条狭窄的小道上走,那匹马一想转弯,那男孩就用鞭子抽它,见此场景,奥威尔就想到,如果这些牲口知道它们自己的力量,我们就无法控制它们,人类剥削牲口就像富人剥削无产阶级一样。

在评论伯恩汉姆的那篇“Second Thoughts On James Burnham“里,其实也有类似的表示。其实说到底,奥威尔一直是一名社会主义者,像他这样的社会主义者,特点就是不论现实让他多么灰心沮丧,都依然会保留对普罗大众的信心,也许极权统治能维持几十年,几百年,甚至几千年,但它总会有被推翻的一天,人类从来都没有建成社会主义,不代表以后就不会建成。这里的社会主义,是指奥威尔理解的民主社会主义,而不是共产主义。

总之,《1984》的结局是开放的,极权主义很可能最终还是被推翻了,如果你知道了结尾用的是过去时再去看这本小说,会有很不一样的感受。

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